- Applied Research
Engineering activity involves the regular application of scientific knowledge (that is, knowledge gained in scientific activity) to create artificial, technical systems — structures, devices, mechanisms, machines, and so on.
This is its difference from technical activity, which is based more on experience, practical skills, and conjecture. Therefore, engineering activity should not be equated only with the activities of engineers who are often forced to carry out technical and sometimes scientific activities (if, for example, the available knowledge is not enough to create any particular technical system).
At the same time, there are numerous examples when major scientists turned to invention, design, engineering, that is, in fact, carried out some time, in parallel with scientific, engineering activities. Therefore, engineering activity must be considered regardless of who it is implemented (specially for this purpose by trained professionals, scientists, or simply self-taught).
The current stage of development of engineering activity is characterized by a systematic approach to solving complex scientific and technical problems, turning to the whole complex of social humanitarian, natural and technical disciplines. However, there was a stage that can be called classical, when engineering activity still existed in a “pure” form: at first only as invention , then design and development and production organization.
The separation of design and its penetration into related fields related to the solution of complex socio-technical problems led to a crisis of traditional engineering thinking and the development of new forms of engineering and design culture, the emergence of new systemic and methodological orientations, and the emergence of humanitarian methods of cognition and assimilation of reality.