Engineering surveys for construction should be understood as an integrated production process, as a result of which construction design is provided with baseline data on the natural conditions of the district or a separate section of the proposed construction.
After completing the survey, the designer receives:
— a topographic plan giving an idea of the terrain and existing communications;
— engineering-geological report, including the geological structure of the area, geomorphological and hydrogeological conditions of the area, composition, condition and properties of soils, forecast of possible engineering-geological and hydrogeological processes;
— a report with an environmental assessment of the environment (soils, atmospheric air, ground and surface waters, geophysical fields) at the site of the projected facility.
— engineering surveys — main types:
— geological engineering surveys
— geodetic surveys
— environmental engineering surveys
— hydrometeorological engineering surveys
And now briefly consider each type of engineering survey:
n the process of conducting engineering and geological surveys, soils as the foundation or the environment of buildings and structures, groundwater contained in them, physical and geological processes and their manifestation forms, and in some cases soils as building material are subject to study.
The objects of study of engineering and geodetic surveys are the relief and the situation within the construction site, on the selected construction site or highway.
Now great attention is paid to environmental engineering surveys. Due to the difficult environmental situation, the environmental issue has become one of the main ones. What does ecology include?
— radiometric survey of the construction area,
— sanitary and chemical inspection,
— biological research,
— sanitary and epidemiological expertise.
And finally, engineering and meteorological surveys. They include the study of surface water of the earth (rivers, lakes, reservoirs), i.e. flow rates, costs, channel processes, freezing depths, climatological features of areas, etc.
The above engineering surveys are basic, because their implementation is necessary to select design decisions and justify the development of projects of almost all buildings and structures, regardless of purpose, type and design.
No project at present can be competently designed and implemented without engineering survey materials. Engineering surveys should be considered as an integral and integral part of the construction industry.